Coccidios Disease in Poultry

Coccidios disease in poultry by Dr. Maziar Mohiti Asli (taken from book of feed additives of livestock, poultry and aquatic) coccidios is an infection in intestine which is caused by a single celled parasite called coccidia. All species of animals may be infected with coccidios especially when the animals are reared in intensive number the risk of disease increases and if the breeding management is weak the possibility of infection would be twice.
Although livestock such as cattle and sheep may be infected with coccidios but due to the more damage of this parasite that cause to poultry and significant drop in performance would occurs, this disease in poultry is more important. Since the transmission of disease is by eating excreted oocytes in the feces, the disease is observed mostly in poultry such as broilers and breeder who are reared on bed. Most poultry coccidioses belongs to the Eimeria. Emeria host is highly specific and each host may have several different pathogenic species of Eimeria that are unique to that infected host. Seven species of Eimeria that cause disease coccidiosis in poultry include: Eimeria tenella, Eimeria brunette, Eimeria necatrix, Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria mitis and Eimeria praecox.
Apparently all the seven species exist in the whole world, but the most common is Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria maxima and the most pathogenic is Eimeria tenella. Each of these three common species of Eimeria would be involved with certain parts of the intestine. Eimeria acervulina in the duodenum, Eimeria maxima in the jejunum and Eimeria tenella in the cecum cause the infection. Intestinal wounds bleeding eventually be detected as dysentery.
Feed additive for Disease Control and Prevention of coccidiosis: Since the disease causes high mortality in poultry flocks and the treatment is very costly and lengthy Thus, prevention of disease is far more important than treatment. There are many ways to control and prevention of coccidios that could be mentioned such as hygiene and reducing bed moisture, genetic consideration and development of resistant strains of poultry, vaccines and drugs. Anti-coccidios drugs used to prevent the disease.
Compounds that inhibit the growth of coccidioses but do not kill them is called coccidiostat and compounds that kill the parasites are known as coccidiosid. In general, compounds that act in any way against coccidioses is called anticoccidials. Anticoccidials drugs are ionophores antibiotics and chemical drugs that are added to poultry feed additives especially broilers. Ionophores ionophores are most important and effective anticoccidials drugs. Ionophores are fermentation products that effect on the transfer of a bivalent ions from cell membrane. It attracts a lot of sodium and potassium ions by the oocytes as a result that of osmotic pressure inside the oocyte will increase and attracts plenty of water which ultimately will lead to swelling and rupture of the oocyte cell membrane. Ionophores that is used as anticoccidios include: monensin, Lasalocid, salinomycin, and narasyn and madoramycin.
Sulfonamides are sulfur compounds were the first products were used for the treatment or prevention of coccidios. However, due to the toxic effects of sulfonamides, large quantities consumption or continuous use of them can lead to toxicity. The most important sulfonamides are Sulfaquinoxaline which increases the bird vitamin K requirement several times. Sulfonamides compete with parasites in the formation of PABA (para-aminobenzoic acid) and folic acid.
In most of microorganisms PABA consider a major metabolite that plays an important role in the synthesis of folic acid. Sulfonamides because of the same building can be entered instead of PABA in the reaction and similar clones of folic acid are produced that do not have similarity to folic acid in the operation and will disturb growth of bacteria.
Omprolium is an anti-thiamin drug. Omprolium cause thiamine deficiency in the oocyte But according to the given the amount of thiamine in diet, thiamine deficiency often isn`t seen in birds except in the case of Omprolium with untreated fish meal consumption. Thiaminaz enzyme in untreated fish meal would cause thiamine deficiency.
Meanwhile omprolium should not be used with diets containing large amounts of choline because of this combination Picric acid will be produced and choline and drug both will be unavailable. Nicarbazin is the other drugs that are effective against anticoccidials that is normally used in broiler diets. Nicarbazin usage in laying chickens or breeder, reduce reproductive capability of them.
Brown eggs of Chicken with nicarbazin in their diet after 48 hours will change eggshell to white color. This loss of shell color returned to normal after withdrawal of the drug. In addition, it appears that nicarbazin increases deleterious effects of heat stress and the losses. Nicarbazin has mutual coexist effect with narasyn. Nicarbazin negative effects on the reproductive system occurs as a decrease in egg production and egg weight and hatchability reduction.
The molecular mechanisms which nicarbazin impact on bird reproduction remains unknown. Other anticoccidios drugs are coinolin and clopidol which limit the metabolism energy of coccidios cytochrome system. Ionophores of poly ether reverse osmozy balance of protozoa cells by changing of cell membrane permeability to the cations.

By Dr. Maziar Mohiti Asli, Poultry Nutritionist
DGM-Technomix Scientific Group
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