New flocks of broilers, laying chickens and breeders for good reproductive efficiency, FCR, durability and good safety response need to a balanced diet with essential nutrients. Productive farms provide management guidelines that offers suitable nutrient characteristics for a variety of ages and birds.
Practical feed of commercial poultry by Dr. Maziar Mohiti Asli (from the book of poultry nutritional and digestive disorders) New flocks nutritional properties of broilers, laying chickens and breeders for good reproductive efficiency, FCR, durability and good safety response need to a balanced diet with essential nutrients. Productive farms provide management guidelines that offers suitable nutrient characteristics for a variety of ages and birds.
Nutritionists meet the food necessities by combining the available food to preparing a diet at the lowest cost. Generally, the linear programming is used for the regulation of essential nutrients formulas, which may include:
• Metabolizable energy
• Crude Protein
• Essential amino acids especially: methionine, cysteine, lysine, tryptophan, threonine
• Essential fats and fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acids)
• Hi need minerals: sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, chlorine as chloride, phosphorous as phosphate, sulfur as sulfate
• Low need minerals: copper, cobalt, manganese, zinc, selenium, iron, iodine as iodized salts and chromium (?)
• Gezantophils for the color of the yolk and skin
• Fat-soluble vitamins: A, D3 (Cooleclysfrol), E, K and Choline
Water-soluble: B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B6 (pyridoxine), biotin, folic acid, Pentatonic acid, niacin, B12 (Sianocobalamin), vitamin C is not an essential nutrient for commercial poultry.
In stressed situations caused by environment high temperature or disease electrolytes and vitamins may be added in feed and drinking water. Raw materials and food based on the amount of nutrients and absence of toxic compounds are selected for poultry diets.
Range of available food to a nutritionist determine by affecting factors on supply of materials, cost, quality and suitability for age and type of poultry that feed. The nutrients found in foods is extracted from experimental data that have been published in the press on a global or regional testing. Central feed mills or matrix independent food factories supply from the actual nutritional value of the food.
This information based on seasonal availability or food source and with using of chemical analysis conventional methods or infrared spectrometry (NIRS) method are collected and arranged for determination of moisture, protein and fat. In factories that use traditional chemical analysis methods to estimate amino acids amount according to the crude protein analysis results they use from regression equations.
Availability of amino acids in soybean meal can be measured by urease activity or protein degradation index. Soybean meal, especially when there is no protein food with animal source or plant proteins such as canola meal replacement, provides high levels of amino acids in commercial poultry diets.
By Dr. Maziar Mohiti Asli, Poultry Nutritionist
DGM-Technomix Scientific Group
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